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Geothermal Basics - Notes and References

Basics

(1) Energy and Geosciences Institute, University of Utah. Prepared by the U.S. Geothermal Industry for the Renewable Energy Task Force (1997), Briefing on Geothermal Energy. Washington, D.C.

(2) See http://geothermal.marin.org/pwrheat.html#Q4

(3) See http://internationalgeothermal.org/

(4) See, for example, http://www.nrel.gov/geothermal/pdfs/workingfluids.pdf


Current Use

(1) CEC-300-2005-013-FS. Retrieved on January 1, 2009 from http://www.energy.ca.gov/
(2) Geothermal Energy Association. U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Update (Aug. 2008).

(3) U.S. DOE: Geothermal Technologies Program. Geothermal Tomorrow (Sept. 2008).
(4) BP. Statistical Review of World Energy 2008. Retrieved on December 20, 2008 from http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9023788&contentId=7044184

(5) California Energy Commission (2002). Overview of Geothermal Energy in California. Retrieved November 8, 2004. from, http://www.energy.ca.gov/geothermal/overview.html
(6) Geothermal Energy Association. U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Update (Aug. 2008).
(7) GEA assessment, data available at http://geoheat.oit.edu

(8) GEA assessment, data available at http://geoheat.oit.edu

(9) Dorn, Jonathon. World Geothermal Energy Production Nearing Eruption (Aug. 2008). Earth Policy Institute. Retrieved December 20, 2008 from, http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update74.htm

(10) Dorn, Jonathon. World Geothermal Energy Production Nearing Eruption (Aug. 2008). Earth Policy Institute. Retrieved December 20, 2008 from, http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update74.htm
(11) International Geothermal Association. IGA News: 72 (April–June 2008). Retrieved December 20, 2008 from, http://www.geothermal.org/IGA%20News%2072.pdf

(12) More information available from the International Geothermal Association: http://iga.igg.cnr.it/index.php


Potential Use

(1) USGS. Assessment of Moderate-and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States (Sept. 2008).

(2) Campbell, Richard. 2006 SMU Geothermal Conference, presentation available at http://smu.edu/geothermal/Oil&Gas/Campbell_Pleasant%20Bayou.pdf

(3) U.S. Geothermal Power Production and Development Update. Geothermal Energy Association, August 2008

(4) NREL. Geothermal—The Energy Under Our Feet (Nov. 2006).

(5) Gawell, Karl. Geothermal Energy Association, personal communication.

(6) P. Michael Wright, Energy and Geosciences Institute, University of Utah, 1997


Policy

(none)


National Security

(1) Kagel, Alyssa. A Handbook on the Externalities, Employment, and Economics of Geothermal Energy. Geothermal Energy Association, October 2006

(2) Kagel, Alyssa. A Handbook on the Externalities, Employment, and Economics of Geothermal Energy. Geothermal Energy Association, October 2006


Environment

(1) Kagel, Alyssa, Diana Bates, and Karl Gawell. A Guide to Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Geothermal Energy Association, April 2007.

(2) EIA. U.S. DOE (2003). Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2003. figure ES1. Retrieved March 15, 2005 , from http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/1605/ggrpt/executive_summary.html.

(3) IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001. Stand-alone edition

(4) Kagel, Alyssa, Diana Bates, and Karl Gawell. A Guide to Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Geothermal Energy Association, April 2007.

(5) Kagel, Alyssa, Diana Bates, and Karl Gawell. A Guide to Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Geothermal Energy Association, April 2007.

(6) Kagel, Alyssa, Diana Bates, and Karl Gawell. A Guide to Geothermal Energy and the Environment. Geothermal Energy Association, April 2007.

(7) Geothermal Development Associates of Reno, Nevada designed a power plant for use in Djibouti, East Africa that would have also produced potable water for use in the area. There have been other studies of the potential to produce potable water from geothermal resources in the U.S. and overseas, but no projects have been built for this purpose.

(8) John Pritchett, SAIC, personal communication.


Economic Benefits

(1) Kagel, Alyssa. A Handbook on the Externalities, Employment, and Economics of Geothermal Energy. Geothermal Energy Association, October 2006. (Page iv).

(2) Kagel, Alyssa. A Handbook on the Externalities, Employment, and Economics of Geothermal Energy. Geothermal Energy Association, October 2006

(3) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (September 1998). Geothermal Heat Pumps. DOE/GO-10098-652. Accessed August 15, 2005, from http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24782.pdf

(4) Néron-Bancel, Timothée. Geothermal Revenue Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005: Income Distribution at Federal, State, and County Levels. Geothermal Energy Association, January 2009. (Page 5)

(5) Néron-Bancel, Timothée. Geothermal Revenue Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005: Income Distribution at Federal, State, and County Levels. Geothermal Energy Association, January 2009. (Page 5)

(6) Néron-Bancel, Timothée. Geothermal Revenue Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005: Income Distribution at Federal, State, and County Levels. Geothermal Energy Association, January 2009. (Page 5)

(7) The Economic Impact of Calpine’s Geothermal Development Projects, Siskiyou County, California. Prepared for Calpine Corporation. Center for Economic Development: California State University, Chico. Accessed August 12, 2005, from http://news.csuchico.edu/2002/08/01/geothermal-power-development-review-describes-benefits-to-local-economies/

(8) Meidav T. & Pigott J (April 1994). The Impact of Geothermal Energy Development on Employment, Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, Oakland.

(9 ) Energy Statistics in Iceland. Orkustofnun, September 2007. Accessed December 20, 2008

(10) U.S. DOE, EERE, Geothermal Technologies Program. Technologies. Accessed January 30, 2009 from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/geopower_landuse.html

(11) Environmental Impact Statement for the Truckhaven Geothermal Leasing Area, Imperial County, California. BLM: El Centro Field Office, October 2007. (Table 3-10 on page 3-64).
(12) Kagel, Alyssa. A Handbook on the Externalities, Employment, and Economics of Geothermal Energy. Geothermal Energy Association, October 2006

(13) Assuming that average capital cost of a geothermal project corresponds to $4000/kW.

(14) Kagel, Alyssa. A Handbook on the Externalities, Employment, and Economics of Geothermal Energy. Geothermal Energy Association, October 2006


Power Plant Costs

(1) California Energy Commission (CEC), December 2007. Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.

(2) “Levelized cost” is defined as the total capital, fuel, and operating and maintenance costs associated with the plant over its lifetime divided by the estimated output in kWh over its lifetime (expressed here in current dollars).

(3) Costs are often reported in dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh) or dollars per kilowatt-year ($/kW-Yr). The $/MWh form is the more common one and is useful since it allocates costs to the expected hours of operation.

(4) California Energy Commission (CEC) (June 2003). Comparative Cost of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies, Final Staff Report.

(5) Western Governors’ Association. Geothermal Task Force Report (January 2006).

http://www.westgov.org/wga/initiatives/cdeac/Geothermal-full.pdf

(6) U.S. DOE. Geothermal Technologies Program (Sept. 2008) Geothermal Tomorrow.

(7) Haberle and Flynn (1995). Comparative Economics and Benefits of Electricity Produced from Geothermal Resources in the State of Nevada. Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas.

(8) G. Simons (2001). " California Renewable Technology Market and Benefits Assessment", Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

(9) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1999). An assessment of the economics of future electric power generation options and the implication for fusion.

(10) Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (CEERT). Geothermal Power. Accessed August 15, 2005, from http://www.ceert.org.

(11) California Energy Commission (CEC), December 2007. Comparative Costs of California Central Station Electricity Generation Technologies.


Employment

(1) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Geothermal Development Job Types and Impacts. Accessed August 15, 2005, from http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/job_types.html.

(2) Industries that experience both direct and indirect impacts will often change their employment levels to meet the new level of demand. These employment changes induce changes in income that are spent in the region to purchase goods and services.

(3) Gawell, Karl. Geothermal Energy Association, estimate provided to U.S. Department of Energy, January 2009.


Myth Busters

(none)

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